Study series: Citizen Marx

Karl Marx started his political journey as a republican before becoming a socialist and communist. This was not the end of the story. What happened next? The Republican Labour Working Group is organising a reading and study series around the politics of Citizen Marx by Bruno Leipold.

Next session – FRIDAY 27 MAY 2022


  1. The Republicanism of Karl Heinzen and William James Linton, pages 127-134

QUESTION ONE, page 128 top

Why did Heinzen go into exile in 1844? Who did he meet in Zurich? Was he already a republican?

QUESTION 2, page 128

In the German revolution of 1848, what did Heinzen propagandise for in Baden? 

QUESTION 3, page 128

After the German revolution failed, and Heinzen went to London, why did the Times call for his expulsion?

QUESTION 4, top page 129 – to top 130

On what occasions did Marx and Heinzen had opportunity to meet, and how did this end?

QUESTION 5, top page 130 to top 131

What did an editorial in the September 1847 German-Brussels Gazette report about Heinzen? What did Heinzen then say about Engels, and what did Marx say about it all?

QUESTION 6, page 131

What serious and important engagements laid behind these ad hominem attacks – (addressed to the person, not to a view)?

QUESTION 7, page 131

Why should this exchange (Heinzen-Engels-Marx) be seen as a wider process of differentiation between republicans and communists?

QUESTION 8, bottom page 131

Did William James Linton play a prominent role in Marx’ life? If not, how did Marx’ communism and Linton’s republicanism come to show side-by-side?

QUESTION 9, top page 132

How did Linton’s association with Mazzini get him (Linton) to be sent to Paris to congratulate the February 1848 revolutionary provisional government in France? 

QUESTION 10, bottom page 132

What could be said to be Linton’s most important contribution to republican thought? 

QUESTION 11 – page 133

Why should the relative historical neglect of Linton’s political contribution to republicanism be rectified?

QUESTION 12, page 134

What are the three programmatic articles in Linton’s English Republic? What republican ideas was he passionate about and committed to?

Next session after this one – 10 June in principle – will be: 


  1. The Political versus the Social – pages 134 to 143.